Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag

Deok Hyun Moon, Mahmoud Wazne, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Yoon Young Chang, Kitae Baek, Yong Sik Ok, Jeong Hun Park

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19 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Arsenic
  • Contaminated soil
  • Copper
  • Lead
  • Oyster shell
  • Stabilization
  • Steel slag

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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