Standardization of the Korean version of the PostTraumatic Embitterment Disorder Self-Rating Scale

Cheolmin Shin, Changsu Han, Michael Linden, Jeong Ho Chae, Young-Hoon Ko, Yong Ku Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Sook Haeng Joe, In Kwa Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Embitterment is a persistent feeling of being let down or insulted, feeling like a "loser", or feeling revengeful but helpless. In South Korea, social injustice experienced during rapid industrial development and protracted unemployment during the Asian economic crisis may lead to strong feelings of embitterment. North Korean defectors and victims of industrial disasters may also experience humiliation and feelings of injustice. Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED) is a recent conceptualization of a new psychiatric disorder. This study tested the reliability and validation of the Korean version of the PTED Scale. Methods: Subjects aged 18 years or older were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient clinic. All subjects were diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Subjects completed the Korean version of the PTED Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15) at baseline and two weeks later. Results: Approximately 15.4% of subjects could be categorized as having PTED. The test-retest reliability of the PTED Scale was good (r=0.76) and the internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.962). Positive correlations were found between the PTED Scale, the PHQ-9 and the PHQ-15, indicating substantial convergent validity of the PTED Scale. Conclusion: The Korean version of the PTED Scale is a reliable and valid measurement of embitterment in Korean adults as an emotional reaction to a negative life event.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368-372
Number of pages5
JournalPsychiatry Investigation
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Dec 1

Keywords

  • Embitterment
  • PHQ-15
  • PHQ-9
  • PTED

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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