Standardized, musculoskeletal ultrasonographic reference values for healthy Korean adults

Hyun Sook Kim, Hae Rim Kim, Bo Young Kim, Yun Sung Kim, Young Ok Jung, Sung Jae Choi, Hyun Ok Kim, Jiwon Hwang, Sunggun Lee, Hyoun Ah Kim, So Young Bang, Ji Young Chai, Sung Hoon Park, Chong Hyeon Yoon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Background/Aims: To define standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in Korea. Methods: A total of 251 healthy adults were recruited for this study. Ultrasonography was performed by experienced rheumatologists who had undergone four appropriate training programs in Korea. A General Electric LOGIQ electronic ultrasound device fitted with a 12 MHz linear transducer was employed. Mean values ± standard deviations (SDs) were defined as standard reference values. In-traclass correlation coefficients was employed to evaluate the extent of inter-and intraobserver agreement when MSUS measurements were made. Results: The 251 study participants included 122 males. Mean subject age was 28.6 years. The average bone-to-capsule distance of the right-side second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were 0.68 and 0.72 mm respectively, and those of the left-side joints 0.62 and 0.68 mm. The cartilage thicknesses of the right-side second and third MCP joints were 0.55 and 0.55 mm, and those of the left-side joints were 0.55 and 0.56 mm, respectively. The bone-to-capsule distances of the right and left wrists were 0.80 and 0.82 mm. In 12.4% of participants (31/251), the erosion score of the humeral head was 1.71. In the right-side knee joint, mean cartilage thicknesses of the medial and lateral condyles were 1.86 and 2.03 mm in longitudinal scans. High overall interobserver agreement was evident after appropriate training that included instruction on standard MSUS methodology. Conclusions: We defined standard reference values for MSUS in healthy Korean adults. The reliabilities of interobserver agreements were high after appropriate training program.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1372-1380
    Number of pages9
    JournalKorean Journal of Internal Medicine
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov


    • Education
    • Musculoskeletal
    • Reference standards
    • Ultrasonography

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine


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