Stress among Thai farm workers under globalization: A causal model

C. Kaewanuchit, C. Muntaner, R. Labonte, D. A. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This objective study was carried out to discover and model the causal relationships between globalization and stress. The study used a simple random sampling of 600 Thai farm workers. The variables measured were general demographic variables, globalization (i.e. transnational corporations, transnational practices and transnational economics), land holding, the Thai market, Thai state regulation, Thai state social protection and a self-Analysed and self-evaluated stress test (SSST). The instrument was modified from the instrument used in past studies. The items were answered using a 4-point Likert-type of scale. However, SSST is a standardised instrument used in Thailand. It was developed by the Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. This instrument was employed to evaluate the respondents' levels of stress. It was assessed based on 20 items. Its scores were interpreted by stress level and points. It was found to have a Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.91. Validity was verified by content and construct validity was done by questionnaire. These materials were sent to five professors in order to verify content and construct validity. Reliability was proofed by test-retest reliability. The reliability was 0.94. Data were analysed using the M plus path modelling software i.e. indirect and direct relationships. The results showed direct relationship between stress and globalization i.e. transnational corporations and transnational economics. The modelling revealed that globalization i.e. transnational corporations and transnational economics had a direct effect on farm worker stress, and transnational practices showed weak associations among Thai state regulation, Thai state social protection, Thai market, land holding and technology variables and their effects upon stress by indirect effect. The authors recommend that these issues should be studied further to confirm the validity of this relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-182
Number of pages14
JournalPertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 1


  • A causal model
  • Globalization
  • Stress
  • Thai farm workers
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Arts and Humanities(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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