Studies on sub-millimeter LYSO:Ce, Ce:GAGG, and a new Ce:GFAG block detector for PET using digital silicon photomultiplier

Muhammad Nasir Ullah, Eva Pratiwi, Jin Ho Park, Seiichi Yamamoto, Kei Kamada, Akira Yoshikawa, Jungyeol Yeom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The spatial, timing, and energy resolutions of a detector affect the image quality of a positron emission tomography (PET) system. These parameters are in turn dependent on various factors, such as the choice of scintillator, photodetectors, reflector material, and surface treatment (rough or polished) of the scintillators. In this study, we investigated the performances of sub-millimeter scintillator array, LYSO:Ce (polished and rough surfaces with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector or enhanced specular reflector (ESR)), a gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector), and a new gadolinium fine aluminum gallate (Ce:GFAG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector) detectors. The outer dimension of each scintillator block was [Formula presented]12 [Formula presented] 12 mm with a 12 [Formula presented] 12 matrix of 0.9 [Formula presented] 6 mm3 crystal elements. These blocks were optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44) with a 1 mm thick optical guide. Experiments were conducted at a sensor temperature of [Formula presented]15 °C, and a two-dimensional position histogram for 22Na gamma photons showed that all pixels were clearly resolved for all block detectors (peak-to-valley ratios ranging from 5.3 to 11.1). The average energy resolutions for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (BaSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were measured as 11.3%, 10.2%, 18.7%, 10.3%, 10.0%, and 13.2% full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. The coincidence resolving times (with 3 [Formula presented] 3 [Formula presented] 5 mm3 LYSO crystal as reference) for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (B aSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were 209 ps, 222 ps, 197 ps, 230 ps, 321 ps, and 276 ps, respectively. In conclusion, the new GFAG scintillator may be a promising candidate for future high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF) PET systems, considering the tradeoff between its performance and potential to be grown at a lower cost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-122
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume911
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 11

Fingerprint

Positron emission tomography
Photomultipliers
Phosphors
positrons
reflectors
tomography
Paramagnetic resonance
Detectors
Silicon
detectors
silicon
scintillation counters
Gadolinium
Aluminum
Crystals
Garnets
Temperature sensors
Gallium
gadolinium
Photodetectors

Keywords

  • Digital silicon photomultiplier
  • Scintillation detector
  • Time-of-flight positron emission tomography
  • Timing resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Studies on sub-millimeter LYSO:Ce, Ce:GAGG, and a new Ce:GFAG block detector for PET using digital silicon photomultiplier. / Ullah, Muhammad Nasir; Pratiwi, Eva; Park, Jin Ho; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira; Yeom, Jungyeol.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 911, 11.12.2018, p. 115-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The spatial, timing, and energy resolutions of a detector affect the image quality of a positron emission tomography (PET) system. These parameters are in turn dependent on various factors, such as the choice of scintillator, photodetectors, reflector material, and surface treatment (rough or polished) of the scintillators. In this study, we investigated the performances of sub-millimeter scintillator array, LYSO:Ce (polished and rough surfaces with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector or enhanced specular reflector (ESR)), a gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector), and a new gadolinium fine aluminum gallate (Ce:GFAG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector) detectors. The outer dimension of each scintillator block was [Formula presented]12 [Formula presented] 12 mm with a 12 [Formula presented] 12 matrix of 0.9 [Formula presented] 6 mm3 crystal elements. These blocks were optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44) with a 1 mm thick optical guide. Experiments were conducted at a sensor temperature of [Formula presented]15 °C, and a two-dimensional position histogram for 22Na gamma photons showed that all pixels were clearly resolved for all block detectors (peak-to-valley ratios ranging from 5.3 to 11.1). The average energy resolutions for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (BaSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were measured as 11.3{\%}, 10.2{\%}, 18.7{\%}, 10.3{\%}, 10.0{\%}, and 13.2{\%} full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. The coincidence resolving times (with 3 [Formula presented] 3 [Formula presented] 5 mm3 LYSO crystal as reference) for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (B aSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were 209 ps, 222 ps, 197 ps, 230 ps, 321 ps, and 276 ps, respectively. In conclusion, the new GFAG scintillator may be a promising candidate for future high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF) PET systems, considering the tradeoff between its performance and potential to be grown at a lower cost.",
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T1 - Studies on sub-millimeter LYSO:Ce, Ce:GAGG, and a new Ce:GFAG block detector for PET using digital silicon photomultiplier

AU - Ullah, Muhammad Nasir

AU - Pratiwi, Eva

AU - Park, Jin Ho

AU - Yamamoto, Seiichi

AU - Kamada, Kei

AU - Yoshikawa, Akira

AU - Yeom, Jungyeol

PY - 2018/12/11

Y1 - 2018/12/11

N2 - The spatial, timing, and energy resolutions of a detector affect the image quality of a positron emission tomography (PET) system. These parameters are in turn dependent on various factors, such as the choice of scintillator, photodetectors, reflector material, and surface treatment (rough or polished) of the scintillators. In this study, we investigated the performances of sub-millimeter scintillator array, LYSO:Ce (polished and rough surfaces with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector or enhanced specular reflector (ESR)), a gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector), and a new gadolinium fine aluminum gallate (Ce:GFAG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector) detectors. The outer dimension of each scintillator block was [Formula presented]12 [Formula presented] 12 mm with a 12 [Formula presented] 12 matrix of 0.9 [Formula presented] 6 mm3 crystal elements. These blocks were optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44) with a 1 mm thick optical guide. Experiments were conducted at a sensor temperature of [Formula presented]15 °C, and a two-dimensional position histogram for 22Na gamma photons showed that all pixels were clearly resolved for all block detectors (peak-to-valley ratios ranging from 5.3 to 11.1). The average energy resolutions for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (BaSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were measured as 11.3%, 10.2%, 18.7%, 10.3%, 10.0%, and 13.2% full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. The coincidence resolving times (with 3 [Formula presented] 3 [Formula presented] 5 mm3 LYSO crystal as reference) for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (B aSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were 209 ps, 222 ps, 197 ps, 230 ps, 321 ps, and 276 ps, respectively. In conclusion, the new GFAG scintillator may be a promising candidate for future high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF) PET systems, considering the tradeoff between its performance and potential to be grown at a lower cost.

AB - The spatial, timing, and energy resolutions of a detector affect the image quality of a positron emission tomography (PET) system. These parameters are in turn dependent on various factors, such as the choice of scintillator, photodetectors, reflector material, and surface treatment (rough or polished) of the scintillators. In this study, we investigated the performances of sub-millimeter scintillator array, LYSO:Ce (polished and rough surfaces with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector or enhanced specular reflector (ESR)), a gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector), and a new gadolinium fine aluminum gallate (Ce:GFAG, rough surface with BaSO[Formula presented]reflector) detectors. The outer dimension of each scintillator block was [Formula presented]12 [Formula presented] 12 mm with a 12 [Formula presented] 12 matrix of 0.9 [Formula presented] 6 mm3 crystal elements. These blocks were optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44) with a 1 mm thick optical guide. Experiments were conducted at a sensor temperature of [Formula presented]15 °C, and a two-dimensional position histogram for 22Na gamma photons showed that all pixels were clearly resolved for all block detectors (peak-to-valley ratios ranging from 5.3 to 11.1). The average energy resolutions for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (BaSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were measured as 11.3%, 10.2%, 18.7%, 10.3%, 10.0%, and 13.2% full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. The coincidence resolving times (with 3 [Formula presented] 3 [Formula presented] 5 mm3 LYSO crystal as reference) for the LYSO (ESR, rough), LYSO (ESR, polished), LYSO (B aSO4, rough), LYSO (BaSO4, polished), GAGG (BaSO4, rough), and GFAG (BaSO4, rough) arrays were 209 ps, 222 ps, 197 ps, 230 ps, 321 ps, and 276 ps, respectively. In conclusion, the new GFAG scintillator may be a promising candidate for future high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF) PET systems, considering the tradeoff between its performance and potential to be grown at a lower cost.

KW - Digital silicon photomultiplier

KW - Scintillation detector

KW - Time-of-flight positron emission tomography

KW - Timing resolution

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