This study evaluated the pollutants and nanoparticles, the fuel economy and the levels of carbon dioxide emissions of vehicles equipped with a 1.6 l direct-injection spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline or by liquefied petroleum gas. The nanoparticles were analysed using a particle measurement system that is used in Europe for regulatory purposes. A fast-response particle size and number spectrometer (model DMS500) were used to characterize the size-resolved particle distributions. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer for the New European Driving Cycle and Federal Test Procedure 75 in its factory default state (gasoline version) and modified state (for liquefied petroleum gas fuel), and the results were compared. The liquefied-petroleum-gas direct-injection vehicle emitted significantly lower levels of total hydrocarbons than did the gasoline direct-injection vehicle. However, the levels of nitrogen oxide emissions from the liquefied-petroleum-gas direct-injection vehicle were equivalent to those from the gasoline direct-injection vehicle. Because of the higher combustion and exhaust temperatures and relatively higher loads imposed during the driving cycles, the liquefied-petroleum-gas direct-injection vehicle showed a slightly higher level of nitrogen oxide emissions. The particle emissions from the vehicles were mainly affected by the vehicle driving conditions of the test driving cycles. In particular, the particle emissions from the vehicle were pronounced in the cold-start and accelerating phases of the emission certification standards. The nanoparticles from the liquefied-petroleum-gas direct-injection vehicle were significantly fewer in number, exhibiting a reduction of over 99%.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 2014 Jan 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering
- Aerospace Engineering