In this study, sulfonated graphene oxide (sGO) with a large enhanced sulfonation degree of 1.65 mmol g −1 was simultaneously introduced as a highly ion conduction-activating carbonaceous filler for ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuator. The nanostructured styrenic block copolymer/sGO/ionic liquid (IL) composite membrane actuators revealed much larger actuation performance than top-ranked polyelectrolyte/IL actuators ever reported so far in terms of bending strain (0.88% under 2 V dc), initial strain rate (0.312% min −1 ), and charge-specific displacement (276.4 mm C −1 ). Moreover, SSPB/sGO/IL actuators exhibited excellent actuation performance without drawbacks of conventional IPMCs, such as back-relaxation and early loss of inner solvent. In addition, via tracking the movement of the IL's anion through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, not only the transporting behaviour of IL but also the pumping effect with solvated ion complexes inside the actuator are confirmed for the first time.
- Functional composites
- Graphene oxide (GO)
- Sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer (SSPB)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ceramics and Composites