Subgrade assessment using automated dynamic cone penetrometer to manage geo-infrastructures

Sang Yeob Kim, Jong Sub Lee, Won Taek Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


For the efficient management of geo-infrastructures in the field, engineering properties of the subgrade should be reliably and rapidly investigated. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the strength and stiffness parameters of subgrades using portable in-situ devices. An automated dynamic cone penetrometer (ACP), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP), and light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) are adopted and applied at nine points of soft ground in South Korea. The Nvalue from the ACP (NACP), which efficiently assesses the relatively deep subgrade, is correlated with the dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) and dynamic deflection modulus (Evd). Test results show that the DCPI and Evd can be estimated in terms of NACP. In particular, the relationship between Evd and NACP is improved when the strain influence factor of the target ground is considered. For the assessment of strength and stiffness parameters, the California bearing ratio (CBR), relative density (Dr), internal friction angle (φ), and elastic moduli determined by the plate loading test (PLT), soil stiffness gauge (SSG), falling weight deflectometer (FWD) are estimated using NACP. The ACP test with the relationships between engineering parameters and NACP may be an effectively method to assess the overall characteristics of the subgrade.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-870
Number of pages10
JournalSmart Structures and Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May


  • Automated dynamic cone penetrometer (ACP)
  • Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP)
  • Engineering parameter;light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD)
  • Subgrade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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