Surveillance for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Ji Sung Shim, Sung-Gu Kang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Follow-up after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is necessary because of the significant risk of recurrence and progression. Cystoscopy remains the standard method for follow-up. When the first follow-up cystoscopy at 3 months after TURBT is negative, the following cystoscopies are traditionally repeated every 3 months for a period of 2 years, then every 6 months until the end of the fifth year, and yearly thereafter. This approach can now be tailored depending on individual risk of recurrence and progression. Low-risk patients can be discharged from cystoscopic follow-up after being free of recurrence for 5 years. In patients with a history of high-risk NMIBC including carcinoma in situ, urinary cytology should be used as an adjunct to cystoscopy with lifelong bladder follow-up and yearly upper tract imaging. Currently, urine markers have no adequate evidence-based role in the follow-up of NMIBC. A follow-up regimen for intermediate-risk patients is less clearly definable. It should be between low- and high-risk regimens according to the current guidelines. In summary, surveillance strategies should be individualized based on the risk of cancer recurrence at the bladder and extravesical sites.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBladder Cancer
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages541-551
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780128099407
ISBN (Print)9780128099391
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 14

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Keywords

  • Bladder
  • Cancer
  • Non-muscle
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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