In order to enhance sonocatalytic oxidation of a recalcitrant organic pollutant, rhodamine B (RhB), it is necessary to study the fundamental aspects of sonocatalysis. In this study, TiO2-incorporated nano-structured carbon (i.e., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene (GR)) composites were synthesized by coating TiO2 on CNTs or GR of different mass percentages (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 wt%) by a facile hydrothermal method. The sonocatalytic degradation rates of RhB were examined for the effect of ultrasound (US) frequency and calcination temperature by using the prepared TiO2-NSC composites. Since US frequency affected the sonoluminescence (SL) intensities, it was proposed that there exists a correlation between the surface area or band-gap of the sonocatalysts and the degradation kinetic constants of RhB. In addition, the reusability of TiO2-GR composites was also investigated. Overall, the performance of TiO2-GRs prepared by the hydrothermal method was better than that of calcined TiO2-CNTs. Among TiO2-GRs, 5% GR incorporated media (TiO2-GR-5) showed the best performance. Interestingly, the kinetic constants of sonocatalysts prepared under hydrothermal conditions had a negative linear relationship with the band-gap energy for the corresponding media. Furthermore, the strongest SL intensity and highest degradation rates of RhB for both carbonaceous composites were observed at 500 kHz. The kinetic constants of calcined media decreased linearly as the specific area of the media decreased, while the band-gap energy could not be correlated with the kinetic constants. The GR combined TiO2 composite might be a good sonocatalyst in wastewater treatment using ultrasound-based oxidation because of its high stability.
- Carbon nanotubes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics