Cytological and morphological variation among Krigia species is examined. Krigia exhibits a broad range of chromosome numbers including n = 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, and 30. Section Krigia is characterized by reflexed phyllaries and a base chromosome number of x = 5, while section Cymbia is characterized by erect phyllaries and chromosome numbers of n = 4, 6, and 9. The micromorphological characteristics of achenes, pappus, styles, corolla, pollen, stomata, and trichomes are documented using scanning electron microscopy. Among these, the pappus shows the greatest diversity and three major types are identified: 1) a pappus of many bristles and scales, as in K. dandelion, K. montana, and K. biflora; 2) a pappus of five bristles and five scales, as in K. virginica and K. occidentalis; and 3) an absent or highly reduced pappus, as in the K. cespitosa complex and K. wrightii. Thirty-five cytological and morphological characters are subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The two sections, Krigia and Cymbia, form monophyletic lineages. Within section Krigia, the annual species, K. virginica, forms an independent clade, while the perennial species, K. dandelion, K. biflora, and K. montana, form a monophyletic clade. Krigia montana and K. biflora are identified as sister species and a hybrid between these has been identified. The hybrid is more similar morphologically to K. montana than K. biflora. Within section Cymbia, phylogenetic relationships among K. wrightii, K. occidentalis, and K. cespitosa are uncertain. Nine taxa of Krigia are herein recognized: K. dandelion, K. biflora, K. biflora var. viridis (comb. nov.), K. montana, K. virginica, K. wrightii (comb. nov.), K. occidentalis, K. cespitosa, and K. cespitosa f. gracilis (comb. nov.). Phylogenetic relationships among 12 taxa of Krigia species are compared using various combinations of morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA data. Tree topologies from different combinations of data are largely congruent. The most resolved phylogenetic tree is obtained using the combined data from morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA.
- chloroplast DNA
- nuclear ribosomal DNA
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science