Chronic inflammation is a driving force for the development of metabolic disease including diabetes and obesity. However, the functional characteristics of T-cell senescence in the abnormal glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. We studied the patients visiting a hospital for routine health check-ups, who were divided into two groups: normal controls and people with prediabetes. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal controls and patients with type 2 diabetes was undertaken using microarray analysis. We also investigated the immunometabolic characteristics of peripheral and hepatic senescent T cells in the normal subjects and patients with prediabetes. Moreover, murine senescent T cells were tested functionally in the liver of normal or mice with metabolic deterioration caused by diet-induced obesity. Human senescent (CD28−CD57+) CD8+ T cells are increased in the development of diabetes and proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules are highly expressed in senescent T cells from patients with prediabetes. Moreover, we demonstrate that patients with prediabetes have higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in their senescent CD8+ T cells via enhancing capacity to use glycolysis. These functional properties of senescent CD8+ T cells contribute to the impairment of hepatic insulin sensitivity in humans. Furthermore, we found an increase of hepatic senescent T cells in mouse models of aging and diet-induced obesity. Adoptive transfer of senescent CD8+ T cells also led to a significant deterioration in systemic abnormal glucose homeostasis, which is improved by ROS scavengers in mice. This study defines a new clinically relevant concept of T-cell senescence-mediated inflammatory responses in the pathophysiology of abnormal glucose homeostasis. We also found that T-cell senescence is associated with systemic inflammation and alters hepatic glucose homeostasis. The rational modulation of T-cell senescence would be a promising avenue for the treatment or prevention of diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research