### Abstract

The lifetime of high-temperature systems is often controlled by thermally activated mechanisms such as diffusion. The variability in the lifetime of such systems is analyzed when the operating temperature varies according to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. Linear approximation analysis is employed to obtain simple closed from results for the probability density function (pdf) for the lifetime. The Gaussian variation in temperature is shown to transform to a log-normal distribution for the lifetime. The standard deviation of the log-normal distribution can be predicted from the activation energy, the peak temperature, and the standard deviation of the temperature distribution. Higher activation energy and lower operating temperature increase the variability of the lifetime. This approximate results is compared with the exact transformation. Lifetime experiments with incandescent tungsten lamps are compared to the theoretical prediction.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 1471-1476 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Journal | Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science |

Volume | 35 A |

Issue number | 5 |

Publication status | Published - 2004 May 1 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Materials Science(all)
- Metals and Alloys

### Cite this

*Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science*,

*35 A*(5), 1471-1476.

**Temperature-dependent variability in lifetime prediction of thermally activated systems.** / Raj, R.; Kong, Jun g Sik; Frangopol, D. M.; Raj, I. E.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science*, vol. 35 A, no. 5, pp. 1471-1476.

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Temperature-dependent variability in lifetime prediction of thermally activated systems

AU - Raj, R.

AU - Kong, Jun g Sik

AU - Frangopol, D. M.

AU - Raj, I. E.

PY - 2004/5/1

Y1 - 2004/5/1

N2 - The lifetime of high-temperature systems is often controlled by thermally activated mechanisms such as diffusion. The variability in the lifetime of such systems is analyzed when the operating temperature varies according to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. Linear approximation analysis is employed to obtain simple closed from results for the probability density function (pdf) for the lifetime. The Gaussian variation in temperature is shown to transform to a log-normal distribution for the lifetime. The standard deviation of the log-normal distribution can be predicted from the activation energy, the peak temperature, and the standard deviation of the temperature distribution. Higher activation energy and lower operating temperature increase the variability of the lifetime. This approximate results is compared with the exact transformation. Lifetime experiments with incandescent tungsten lamps are compared to the theoretical prediction.

AB - The lifetime of high-temperature systems is often controlled by thermally activated mechanisms such as diffusion. The variability in the lifetime of such systems is analyzed when the operating temperature varies according to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. Linear approximation analysis is employed to obtain simple closed from results for the probability density function (pdf) for the lifetime. The Gaussian variation in temperature is shown to transform to a log-normal distribution for the lifetime. The standard deviation of the log-normal distribution can be predicted from the activation energy, the peak temperature, and the standard deviation of the temperature distribution. Higher activation energy and lower operating temperature increase the variability of the lifetime. This approximate results is compared with the exact transformation. Lifetime experiments with incandescent tungsten lamps are compared to the theoretical prediction.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=2542580143&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=2542580143&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 35 A

SP - 1471

EP - 1476

JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

SN - 1073-5623

IS - 5

ER -