Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression

Aye Mu Myint, Brian E. Leonard, Harry W M Steinbusch, Yong Ku Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Many studies have shown that the balance between Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines plays a role in modulation of cellular responses in the brain during psychological stress and psychiatric disorders. The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-β1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored. Methods: A total of 40 depressed patients and 80 normal controls were recruited. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and TGF-β1 were studied at the time of admission and 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment. Results: The proportion of patients who showed immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and IL-4 in the plasma, and the plasma IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, were significantly higher in depressed patients than in controls. The IFN-γ/TGF-β1 ratio was also higher in depressed patients, and TGF-β1 levels showed a significant negative correlation with the HDRS depression scale. After treatment, TGF-β1 level increased significantly, and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly, in the patient group. However, Th1 changes in male and female showed different trend such as Th1 arm was decreased after the treatment in all male, whereas it was increased in premenopausal age women. Limitations: Replication and extension using a larger sample size are required. Conclusions: The Th1 and Th2 cytokine imbalance was observed in subpopulation of depressed patients. TGF-β1 seemed to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression in this population. Moreover, antidepressant treatment was found to affect the Th1/Th2 balance through the action of TGF-β1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-173
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume88
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Oct 1

Fingerprint

Transforming Growth Factor beta
Depression
Cytokines
Interleukin-4
Th1-Th2 Balance
Antidepressive Agents
Psychoneuroimmunology
Therapeutics
Psychological Stress
Sample Size
Psychiatry
Brain
Population

Keywords

  • Cytokine
  • Interferon
  • Interleukin
  • Major depression
  • TGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression. / Myint, Aye Mu; Leonard, Brian E.; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kim, Yong Ku.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 88, No. 2, 01.10.2005, p. 167-173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Myint, Aye Mu ; Leonard, Brian E. ; Steinbusch, Harry W M ; Kim, Yong Ku. / Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005 ; Vol. 88, No. 2. pp. 167-173.
@article{f1cf7dee0c554ffdb1b6dc66a616a610,
title = "Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression",
abstract = "Background: Many studies have shown that the balance between Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines plays a role in modulation of cellular responses in the brain during psychological stress and psychiatric disorders. The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-β1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored. Methods: A total of 40 depressed patients and 80 normal controls were recruited. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and TGF-β1 were studied at the time of admission and 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment. Results: The proportion of patients who showed immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and IL-4 in the plasma, and the plasma IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, were significantly higher in depressed patients than in controls. The IFN-γ/TGF-β1 ratio was also higher in depressed patients, and TGF-β1 levels showed a significant negative correlation with the HDRS depression scale. After treatment, TGF-β1 level increased significantly, and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly, in the patient group. However, Th1 changes in male and female showed different trend such as Th1 arm was decreased after the treatment in all male, whereas it was increased in premenopausal age women. Limitations: Replication and extension using a larger sample size are required. Conclusions: The Th1 and Th2 cytokine imbalance was observed in subpopulation of depressed patients. TGF-β1 seemed to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression in this population. Moreover, antidepressant treatment was found to affect the Th1/Th2 balance through the action of TGF-β1.",
keywords = "Cytokine, Interferon, Interleukin, Major depression, TGF",
author = "Myint, {Aye Mu} and Leonard, {Brian E.} and Steinbusch, {Harry W M} and Kim, {Yong Ku}",
year = "2005",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2005.07.008",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "167--173",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression

AU - Myint, Aye Mu

AU - Leonard, Brian E.

AU - Steinbusch, Harry W M

AU - Kim, Yong Ku

PY - 2005/10/1

Y1 - 2005/10/1

N2 - Background: Many studies have shown that the balance between Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines plays a role in modulation of cellular responses in the brain during psychological stress and psychiatric disorders. The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-β1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored. Methods: A total of 40 depressed patients and 80 normal controls were recruited. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and TGF-β1 were studied at the time of admission and 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment. Results: The proportion of patients who showed immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and IL-4 in the plasma, and the plasma IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, were significantly higher in depressed patients than in controls. The IFN-γ/TGF-β1 ratio was also higher in depressed patients, and TGF-β1 levels showed a significant negative correlation with the HDRS depression scale. After treatment, TGF-β1 level increased significantly, and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly, in the patient group. However, Th1 changes in male and female showed different trend such as Th1 arm was decreased after the treatment in all male, whereas it was increased in premenopausal age women. Limitations: Replication and extension using a larger sample size are required. Conclusions: The Th1 and Th2 cytokine imbalance was observed in subpopulation of depressed patients. TGF-β1 seemed to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression in this population. Moreover, antidepressant treatment was found to affect the Th1/Th2 balance through the action of TGF-β1.

AB - Background: Many studies have shown that the balance between Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines plays a role in modulation of cellular responses in the brain during psychological stress and psychiatric disorders. The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-β1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored. Methods: A total of 40 depressed patients and 80 normal controls were recruited. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and TGF-β1 were studied at the time of admission and 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment. Results: The proportion of patients who showed immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and IL-4 in the plasma, and the plasma IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, were significantly higher in depressed patients than in controls. The IFN-γ/TGF-β1 ratio was also higher in depressed patients, and TGF-β1 levels showed a significant negative correlation with the HDRS depression scale. After treatment, TGF-β1 level increased significantly, and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly, in the patient group. However, Th1 changes in male and female showed different trend such as Th1 arm was decreased after the treatment in all male, whereas it was increased in premenopausal age women. Limitations: Replication and extension using a larger sample size are required. Conclusions: The Th1 and Th2 cytokine imbalance was observed in subpopulation of depressed patients. TGF-β1 seemed to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression in this population. Moreover, antidepressant treatment was found to affect the Th1/Th2 balance through the action of TGF-β1.

KW - Cytokine

KW - Interferon

KW - Interleukin

KW - Major depression

KW - TGF

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=24644433745&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=24644433745&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2005.07.008

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2005.07.008

M3 - Article

C2 - 16126278

AN - SCOPUS:24644433745

VL - 88

SP - 167

EP - 173

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

IS - 2

ER -