For the improvement of ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng by Phellinus linteus (FRG) were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The polyphenol content of FRG (19.14±0.50 mg/g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with that of non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG, 11.31±1.15 mg/g). The antioxidant activities in FRG, such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in NFRG. The HPLC analysis results showed that the FRG had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in NFRG and FRG were 41.65±1.53 mg/g and 50.12±1.43 mg/g, respectively. However, FRG had a significantly higher content (33.90±0.97 mg/g) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared with NFRG (14.75±0.46 mg/g). The skin permeability of FRG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cell models. In particular, after 3 h, the skin permeability of FRG was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of NFRG. Using a rat everted intestinal sac model, FRG showed a high transport level compared with NFRG after 1 h. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared with NFRG as indicated by skin permeation and intestinal permeability. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites).
- Fermented red ginseng
- Panax ginseng
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)