The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor inhibits the expression of vascular adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines in HUVECs via Akt- and AMPK-dependent mechanisms

Hwan Jin Hwang, Hye Soo Chung, Tae Woo Jung, Ja Young Ryu, Ho Cheol Hong, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Dong Seop Choi, Sei-Hyun Baik, Hye-Jin Yoo

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Abstract

Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, a major anti-hyperglycemic agent, has received substantial attention as a possible therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the direct molecular mechanisms through which DPP-IV inhibitor mediates anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. The effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that gemigliptin efficiently increased the level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly decreased after gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, gemigliptin effectively inhibited LPS- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of gemigliptin in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an AMPK or an Akt inhibitor. Our results suggest that gemigliptin efficiently inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB and JNK signaling via Akt/AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, may directly protect the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-34
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Volume405
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Apr 5

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Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Endothelial cells
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Blood Vessels
Adhesion
Cytokines
Molecules
Lipopolysaccharides
Atherosclerosis
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Endothelial Cells
Foam Cells
Phosphorylation
E-Selectin
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
LC15-0444
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Chemokine CCL2
Macrophages

Keywords

  • AMP-activated protein kinase
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors
  • Endothelial cells
  • Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

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title = "The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor inhibits the expression of vascular adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines in HUVECs via Akt- and AMPK-dependent mechanisms",
abstract = "Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, a major anti-hyperglycemic agent, has received substantial attention as a possible therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the direct molecular mechanisms through which DPP-IV inhibitor mediates anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. The effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that gemigliptin efficiently increased the level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly decreased after gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, gemigliptin effectively inhibited LPS- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of gemigliptin in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an AMPK or an Akt inhibitor. Our results suggest that gemigliptin efficiently inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB and JNK signaling via Akt/AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, may directly protect the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.",
keywords = "AMP-activated protein kinase, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, Endothelial cells, Inflammation",
author = "Hwang, {Hwan Jin} and Chung, {Hye Soo} and Jung, {Tae Woo} and Ryu, {Ja Young} and Hong, {Ho Cheol} and Seo, {Ji A} and Kim, {Sin Gon} and Kim, {Nan Hee} and Choi, {Kyung Mook} and Choi, {Dong Seop} and Sei-Hyun Baik and Hye-Jin Yoo",
year = "2015",
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doi = "10.1016/j.mce.2015.01.025",
language = "English",
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pages = "25--34",
journal = "Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology",
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T1 - The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor inhibits the expression of vascular adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines in HUVECs via Akt- and AMPK-dependent mechanisms

AU - Hwang, Hwan Jin

AU - Chung, Hye Soo

AU - Jung, Tae Woo

AU - Ryu, Ja Young

AU - Hong, Ho Cheol

AU - Seo, Ji A

AU - Kim, Sin Gon

AU - Kim, Nan Hee

AU - Choi, Kyung Mook

AU - Choi, Dong Seop

AU - Baik, Sei-Hyun

AU - Yoo, Hye-Jin

PY - 2015/4/5

Y1 - 2015/4/5

N2 - Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, a major anti-hyperglycemic agent, has received substantial attention as a possible therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the direct molecular mechanisms through which DPP-IV inhibitor mediates anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. The effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that gemigliptin efficiently increased the level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly decreased after gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, gemigliptin effectively inhibited LPS- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of gemigliptin in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an AMPK or an Akt inhibitor. Our results suggest that gemigliptin efficiently inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB and JNK signaling via Akt/AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, may directly protect the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

AB - Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, a major anti-hyperglycemic agent, has received substantial attention as a possible therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the direct molecular mechanisms through which DPP-IV inhibitor mediates anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. The effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that gemigliptin efficiently increased the level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly decreased after gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, gemigliptin effectively inhibited LPS- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of gemigliptin in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an AMPK or an Akt inhibitor. Our results suggest that gemigliptin efficiently inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB and JNK signaling via Akt/AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the DPP-IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, may directly protect the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

KW - AMP-activated protein kinase

KW - Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors

KW - Endothelial cells

KW - Inflammation

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