The effect of area ratio on the flow distribution in liquid cooling module manifolds for electronic packaging

Steve H. Choi, Sehyun Shin, Young I. Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)


The proper selection of the geometry of a manifold is important to obtain a uniform coolant distribution which is necessary to eliminate local hot spots in a liquid cooling module for electronic packaging. The effect of an area ratio, defined as ratio of the total channel cross-sectional area to the dividing flow header cross-sectional area, on the coolant distribution in a parallel flow manifold was studied numerically for a Reynolds number of 50, a typical flow condition observed in the electronic packaging. Of the three area ratios (4,8, and 16), the case of AR=4 produced the best coolant distribution. However, the flow rate in the last channel was 2.75 times that in the first channel. It is concluded that the area ratio is one of the most important parameters affecting the coolant distribution and should be carefully examined in the design of a liquid cooling module.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-234
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1993 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering

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