Background: Anesthesia machines have been developed by the application of new technology for rapid and easier control of anesthetic concentration. In this study, we used a test lung to investigate whether the time taken to reach the target sevoflurane concentration varies with the rate of fresh gas flow (FGF) and type of anesthesia machine (AM). Methods: We measured the times taken to reach the target sevoflurane concentration (2 minimum alveolar concentration = 4%) at variable rates of FGF (0.5, 1, or 3 L/min) and different types of AM (Primus®, Perseus®, and Zeus® [Zeus®-F; Zeus® fresh gas mode, Zeus®-A; Zeus® auto-mode]). Concomitant ventilation was supplied using 100% O2. The AMs were connected to a test lung. A sevoflurane vaporizer setting of 6% was used in Primus®, Perseus®, and Zeus®-F; a target end-tidal setting of 4% was used in Zeus®-A (from a vaporizer setting of 0%). The time taken to reach the target concentration was measured in every group. Results: When the same AM was used (Primus®, Perseus®, or Zeus®-F), the times to target concentration shortened as the FGF rate increased (P < 0.05). Conversely, when the same FGF rate was used, but with different AMs, the time to target concentration was shortest in Perseus®, followed by Primus®, and finally by Zeus®-F (P < 0.05). With regards to both modes of Zeus®, at FGF rates of 0.5 and 1 L/min, the time to target concentration was shorter in Zeus®-A than in Zeus®-F; however, the time was longer in Zeus®-A than in Zeus®-F at FGF rate of 3 L/min (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Shorter times taken to reach the target concentration were associated with high FGF rates, smaller internal volume of the AM, proximity of the fresh gas inlets to patients, absence of a decoupling system, and use of blower-driven ventilators in AM.
- Equipment design
- Inhalation anesthetics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine