The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles

Ji Eun Bae, Man Il Huh, Byung Kyu Ryu, Ji Yeon Do, Seong Uk Jin, Myung Jin Moon, Jae Chang Jung, Yongmin Chang, Eungseok Kim, Sung-Gil Chi, Gang Ho Lee, Kwon Seok Chae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), including superparamagnetic nanoparticles, have expanded dramatically in recent years. Systematic and standardized cytotoxicity assessment to ensure the biosafety and biocompatibility of those applications is compulsory. We investigated whether exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) from e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could affect the cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using mouse hepatocytes and ferucarbotran, a liver-selective MRI contrast agent as a model system. We show that while the SPIO satisfied the conventional cytotoxicity assessment, clinical doses combined with SMF exposure exerts synergistic adverse effects such as reduced cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle aberrations on hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Concomitant treatments with the SPIO and SMF generated SPIO aggregates, which demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake, was sufficient to induce the cytotoxicity without further SMF, emphasizing that the SPIO aggregates were the predominant source of the cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the apoptotic effect was dependent on levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and SPIO uptake while the reduced cell viability was independent of these factors. Moreover, long-term monitoring showed a significant increase in multinuclear giant cells in the cells concomitantly treated with the SPIO and SMF compared with the control. The results demonstrate that the SPIO produces unidentified cytotoxicity on liver in the presence of SMF and the SPIO aggregates predominantly exert the effect. Since aggregation of MNP in biological milieu in the presence of strong SMF is inevitable, a fundamentally different approach to surface fabrication is essential to increase the biocompatibility of MNP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9401-9414
Number of pages14
JournalBiomaterials
Volume32
Issue number35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Magnetic Fields
Cytotoxicity
Iron oxides
Nanoparticles
Agglomeration
Magnetic fields
Cells
Magnetic resonance
Biocompatibility
Liver
Hepatocytes
Cell Survival
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Imaging techniques
ferric oxide
Cell death
Giant Cells
Aberrations
Contrast Media
Reactive Oxygen Species

Keywords

  • Aggregates
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Electromagnetic biology
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • MRI
  • Static magnetic field

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Biophysics

Cite this

Bae, J. E., Huh, M. I., Ryu, B. K., Do, J. Y., Jin, S. U., Moon, M. J., ... Chae, K. S. (2011). The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles. Biomaterials, 32(35), 9401-9414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.08.075

The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles. / Bae, Ji Eun; Huh, Man Il; Ryu, Byung Kyu; Do, Ji Yeon; Jin, Seong Uk; Moon, Myung Jin; Jung, Jae Chang; Chang, Yongmin; Kim, Eungseok; Chi, Sung-Gil; Lee, Gang Ho; Chae, Kwon Seok.

In: Biomaterials, Vol. 32, No. 35, 01.12.2011, p. 9401-9414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bae, JE, Huh, MI, Ryu, BK, Do, JY, Jin, SU, Moon, MJ, Jung, JC, Chang, Y, Kim, E, Chi, S-G, Lee, GH & Chae, KS 2011, 'The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles', Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 35, pp. 9401-9414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.08.075
Bae, Ji Eun ; Huh, Man Il ; Ryu, Byung Kyu ; Do, Ji Yeon ; Jin, Seong Uk ; Moon, Myung Jin ; Jung, Jae Chang ; Chang, Yongmin ; Kim, Eungseok ; Chi, Sung-Gil ; Lee, Gang Ho ; Chae, Kwon Seok. / The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles. In: Biomaterials. 2011 ; Vol. 32, No. 35. pp. 9401-9414.
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