High quality single-crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires with controlled Sn contents of up to 32.5at.% were successfully synthesized via a thermal metal co-evaporation method, based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mode, at a substrate temperature of as low as 540 °C. The high solubility of Sn in the nanowires was explained with the existence of Sn2 + ions along with Sn4 + ions: the coexistence of Sn2 + and Sn 4 + ions facilitated their high substitutional incorporation into the In2O3 lattice by relaxing structural and electrical disturbances due to the differences in ionic radii and electrical charges between Sn and In3 + ions. It was revealed that, while the lattice parameter of the ITO nanowires had a minimum value at a Sn content of 6.3at.%, the electrical resistivity had a minimum value of about 10 - 3Ωcm at a Sn content of 14at.%. These structural and electrical behaviors were explained by variation in the relative and total amounts of the two species, Sn2 + and Sn4 +.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering