The generation of pulsatile flow depends on the hemodynamic energy gradient rather than the pressure gradient. We hypothesized that either positive or negative inotropic agents can affect the hemodynamic energy, which can be measured using the energy equivalent pressure (EEP) and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). This study examined the change in hemodynamic energy induced by dopamine, epinephrine, and esmolol infusion in terms of the EEP and SHE. Dopamine (5, 10 μg/kg/min), epinephrine (0.02, 0.1 μg/kg/min) and esmolol (after bolus 1 mg/kg, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg/min) were infused into six anesthetized dogs. The hemodynamic parameters were collected in the descending thoracic aorta. The mean arterial pressure, blood flow, EEP, and SHE increased significantly with the dopamine infusion. The mean arterial pressure and EEP decreased significantly after the esmolol infusion, while it increased after the epinephrine infusion (p < 0.05 respectively). There was a correlation between the EEP and flow on the descending aorta during the dopamine, esmolol and epinephrine infusions (p < 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the change in hemodynamic energy induced by dopamine, esmolol, and epinephrine may be expressed in terms of the EEP and SHE. In addition, there was a strong correlation between the EEP and flow.
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