Bisphenol A (or BPA) is a toxic endocrine disrupting chemical that is released into the environment through modern manufacturing practices. BPA can disrupt the production, function and activity of endogenous hormones causing irregularity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal glands and also the pituitary-adrenal function. BPA has immuno-suppression activity and can downregulate T cells and antioxidant genes. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of BPA is paramount and therefore, there is an immediate need to properly detect and remediate its influence. In this review, we discuss the toxic effects of BPA on different metabolic systems in the human body, followed by its mechanism of action. Various novel detection techniques (LC-MS, GC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, immunoassay and sensors) involving a pretreatment step (liquid-liquid microextraction and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction) have also been detailed. Mechanisms of various remediation strategies, including biodegradation using native enzymes, membrane separation processes, photocatalytic oxidation, use of nanosorbents and thermal degradation has been detailed. An overview of the global regulations pertaining to BPA has been presented. More investigations are required on the efficiency of integrated remediation technologies rather than standalone methods for BPA removal. The effect of processing operations on BPA in food matrices is also warranted to restrict its transport into food products.
- Endocrine system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis