The influence of stress on neuroinflammation and alterations in brain structure and function in major depressive disorder

Yong Ku Kim, Eunsoo Won

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can also exert direct neurotoxic effects on specific brain regions. Previous imaging studies have reported associations between pro-inflammatory states and alterations in brain regions involved in emotional regulation, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. Alterations in structure and function of such brain areas due to the neurotoxic effects of increased inflammation may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. This review focuses the influence of stress on neuroinflammation which may cause alterations in brain structure and function in MDD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-11
Number of pages6
JournalBehavioural Brain Research
Volume329
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 30

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Brain
3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Cytokines
Kynurenic Acid
Quinolinic Acid
Kynurenine
Gyrus Cinguli
Sympathetic Nervous System
Amygdala
Epinephrine
Acetylcholine
Hippocampus
Norepinephrine
Depression
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Brain structure and function
  • Kynurenine pathway metabolites
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

The influence of stress on neuroinflammation and alterations in brain structure and function in major depressive disorder. / Kim, Yong Ku; Won, Eunsoo.

In: Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 329, 30.06.2017, p. 6-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{2d9c269799da45bcaa65ad204b32552b,
title = "The influence of stress on neuroinflammation and alterations in brain structure and function in major depressive disorder",
abstract = "Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can also exert direct neurotoxic effects on specific brain regions. Previous imaging studies have reported associations between pro-inflammatory states and alterations in brain regions involved in emotional regulation, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. Alterations in structure and function of such brain areas due to the neurotoxic effects of increased inflammation may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. This review focuses the influence of stress on neuroinflammation which may cause alterations in brain structure and function in MDD.",
keywords = "Brain structure and function, Kynurenine pathway metabolites, Major depressive disorder, Neuroinflammation, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, Stress",
author = "Kim, {Yong Ku} and Eunsoo Won",
year = "2017",
month = "6",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.020",
language = "English",
volume = "329",
pages = "6--11",
journal = "Behavioural Brain Research",
issn = "0166-4328",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The influence of stress on neuroinflammation and alterations in brain structure and function in major depressive disorder

AU - Kim, Yong Ku

AU - Won, Eunsoo

PY - 2017/6/30

Y1 - 2017/6/30

N2 - Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can also exert direct neurotoxic effects on specific brain regions. Previous imaging studies have reported associations between pro-inflammatory states and alterations in brain regions involved in emotional regulation, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. Alterations in structure and function of such brain areas due to the neurotoxic effects of increased inflammation may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. This review focuses the influence of stress on neuroinflammation which may cause alterations in brain structure and function in MDD.

AB - Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can also exert direct neurotoxic effects on specific brain regions. Previous imaging studies have reported associations between pro-inflammatory states and alterations in brain regions involved in emotional regulation, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. Alterations in structure and function of such brain areas due to the neurotoxic effects of increased inflammation may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. This review focuses the influence of stress on neuroinflammation which may cause alterations in brain structure and function in MDD.

KW - Brain structure and function

KW - Kynurenine pathway metabolites

KW - Major depressive disorder

KW - Neuroinflammation

KW - Pro-inflammatory cytokines

KW - Stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018724134&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85018724134&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.020

DO - 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.020

M3 - Review article

C2 - 28442354

AN - SCOPUS:85018724134

VL - 329

SP - 6

EP - 11

JO - Behavioural Brain Research

JF - Behavioural Brain Research

SN - 0166-4328

ER -