The procyanidin trimer C1 induces macrophage activation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways, leading to Th1 polarization in murine splenocytes

Nak Yun Sung, Mi So Yang, Du Sup Song, Eui Baek Byun, Jae Kyung Kim, Jong Heum Park, Beom Seok Song, Ju Woon Lee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyun Jin Park, Myung Woo Byun, Eui Hong Byun, Jae Hun Kim

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Abstract

Numerous studies have shown various relationships between foods with a high nutritional value and a robust immune response, particularly studies that have focused on host protection and cytokine networks. This study aimed to clarify the role played by the procyanidin trimer C1 in innate and adaptive immunity. Procyanidin C1 did not exert cytotoxicity at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 62.5 μg/ml in macrophage cells; therefore, concentration of 62.5 μg/ml was used as the maximum dose of procyanidin C1 throughout subsequent experiments. Procyanidin C1 enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, procyanidin C1 functionally induced macrophage activation by augmenting the expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC II) and proinflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6) via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), e.g., p38, ERK, and JNK and nuclear factor (NF)-KB signaling pathways. Interestingly, procyanidin C1 effectively polarized T helper type 1 (Th1) by secreting Th1-mediated cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-2) and inducing splenocyte proliferation, indicating that procyanidin C1 contributes to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Accordingly, these findings confirms that the procyanidin C1 induces macrophage activation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways, leading to Th1 polarization in murine splenocytes, which suggests that procyanidin C1 regulates innate and adaptive immunity by macrophage activation and Th1 polarization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-228
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
Volume714
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct 17

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Keywords

  • Bone marrow-derived macrophage
  • Murine splenocyte
  • Procyanidin C1
  • RAW 264.7 cells
  • Th1 polarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Sung, N. Y., Yang, M. S., Song, D. S., Byun, E. B., Kim, J. K., Park, J. H., Song, B. S., Lee, J. W., Park, S. H., Park, H. J., Byun, M. W., Byun, E. H., & Kim, J. H. (2013). The procyanidin trimer C1 induces macrophage activation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways, leading to Th1 polarization in murine splenocytes. European Journal of Pharmacology, 714(1-3), 218-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.02.059