Key message: The AtSF1-FLM module spatially controls temperature-dependent flowering by negatively regulating the expression of FT and LFY in the leaf and shoot apex, respectively. Abstract: Alternative splicing mediated by various splicing factors is important for the regulation of plant growth and development. Our recent reports have shown that a temperature-dependent interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana splicing factor 1 (AtSF1) and FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA introns controls the differential production of FLM-β transcripts at different temperatures, eventually resulting in temperature-responsive flowering. However, the molecular and genetic interactions between the AtSF1-FLM module and floral activator genes remain unknown. Here, we aimed to identify the interactions among AtSF1, FLM, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), and LEAFY (LFY) by performing molecular and genetic analyses. FT and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) expression in atsf1-2 mutants significantly increased in the morning and middle of the night at 16 and 23 °C, respectively, under long-day conditions. In addition, ft mutation suppressed the early flowering of atsf1-2 and atsf1-2 flm-3 mutants and masked the temperature response of atsf1-2 flm-3 mutants, suggesting that FT is a downstream target gene of the AtSF1-FLM module. LFY expression significantly increased in the diurnal samples of atsf1-2 mutants and in the shoot apex regions of atsf1-2 ft-10 mutants at different temperatures. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that FLM directly binds to the genomic regions of LFY but not of APETALA1 (AP1). Moreover, lfy mutation suppressed the early flowering of flm-3 mutants, suggesting that LFY is another target of the AtSF1-FLM module. Our results reveal that the AtSF1-FLM module spatially modulates temperature-dependent flowering by regulating FT and LFY expressions.
- Ambient temperature
- Temperature-dependent flowering
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science