Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling modulate plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens in a synergistic and interdependent manner, while JA and ET also have independent roles in certain processes, e.g. in responses to wounding and flooding, respectively. These hormone pathways lead to transcriptional reprogramming, which is a major part of plant immunity and requires the roles of transcription factors. ET response factors are responsible for the transcriptional regulation of JA/ET-responsive defense genes, of which ORA59 functions as a key regulator of this process and has been implicated in the JA-ET crosstalk. We previously demonstrated that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GDSL LIPASE 1 (GLIP1) depends on ET for gene expression and pathogen resistance. Here, promoter analysis of GLIP1 revealed ERELEE4 as the critical cis-element for ET-responsive GLIP1 expression. In a yeast one-hybrid screening, ORA59 was isolated as a specific transcription factor that binds to the ERELEE4 element, in addition to the well-characterized GCC box. We found that ORA59 regulates JA/ET-responsive genes through direct binding to these elements in gene promoters. Notably, ORA59 exhibited a differential preference for GCC box and ERELEE4, depending on whether ORA59 activation is achieved by JA and ET, respectively. JA and ET induced ORA59 phosphorylation, which was required for both activity and specificity of ORA59. Furthermore, RNA-seq and virus-induced gene silencing analyses led to the identification of ORA59 target genes of distinct functional categories in JA and ET pathways. Our results provide insights into how ORA59 can generate specific patterns of gene expression dynamics through JA and ET hormone pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science