Background: Little is known about the role of lymphotoxins (LTs) family in the sinonasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). This study aims at investigating the expression of LIGHT, LTα, LTβ, and their receptors, LTβR and HVEM in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa, and the effect of LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 on chemokine secretion in epithelial cells, epithelial permeability, and leukocyte migration. Material and methods: The expression of LTs family in sinonasal mucosa was evaluated with real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. In LTβR, HVEM siRNA, or control siRNA-transfected epithelial cells treated with LIGHT or LTalpha1beta2, the expression of chemokines, the epithelial permeability, and the expression of junctional complex proteins were evaluated using real-time PCR, ELISA, western blot, confocal microscopy, and FITC-dextran. In cultured endothelial cells treated with LIGHT or LTalpha1beta2, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and leukocyte migration were elucidated. Results: LTs family was expressed in normal mucosa and their levels were increased in inflammatory mucosa of CRS patients. Recombinant LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 induced chemokine secretion, increased epithelial permeability, and promoted leukocyte migration. However, the activity of LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 was attenuated in cells transfected with LTβR and HVEM siRNA. Conclusions: LIGHT and LTs may participate in the ongoing process of chronic inflammation, inducing chemokine secretion, leukocyte migration, and dysregulated epithelial barrier through LTβR and HVEM in sinonasal mucosa.
- Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps
- Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps
- Epithelial permeability
- Leukocyte migration
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Molecular Biology