The universal ratio of boron to chlorinity for the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans

Kitack Lee, Tae-Wook Kim, Robert H. Byrne, Frank J. Millero, Richard A. Feely, Yong Ming Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report seawater boron concentration (mg kg-1) and chlorinity (‰) values measured in seawater samples (n = 139) collected at various depths in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans and the East/Japan Sea (located in the western temperate North Pacific). Our results indicate that variations in seawater boron concentration are strongly coupled to variations in chlorinity (and salinity), yielding a mean boron to chlorinity ratio of 0.2414 ± 0.0009 mg kg-1-1 (boron to salinity ratio = 0.1336 ± 0.0005 mg kg-1-1). This ratio was surprisingly universal throughout the water column in the three marine basins and across widely different ocean surface regimes, but differs from the generally accepted ratio of 0.232 ± 0.005 mg kg-1-1 determined by Uppström (1974), which was based on only 20 measurements at four sites in the tropical Pacific Ocean. In converting total alkalinity to carbonate alkalinity (and vice versa) for thermodynamic calculations, the difference between these two ratios leads to a difference of 5 μmol kg-1 in estimates for ocean surface waters, where the contribution of borate to total alkalinity is typically greatest. We suggest the use of the new boron to chlorinity ratio for predicting seawater boron concentrations using chlorinity (or salinity) data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1801-1811
Number of pages11
JournalGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Volume74
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Mar 15
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Boron
boron
Seawater
Alkalinity
alkalinity
seawater
salinity
sea surface
Borates
borate
Carbonates
Surface waters
North Atlantic Ocean
thermodynamics
water column
Thermodynamics
surface water
carbonate
Water
ocean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

The universal ratio of boron to chlorinity for the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. / Lee, Kitack; Kim, Tae-Wook; Byrne, Robert H.; Millero, Frank J.; Feely, Richard A.; Liu, Yong Ming.

In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, No. 6, 15.03.2010, p. 1801-1811.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, Kitack ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Byrne, Robert H. ; Millero, Frank J. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Liu, Yong Ming. / The universal ratio of boron to chlorinity for the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2010 ; Vol. 74, No. 6. pp. 1801-1811.
@article{9a552c4462ad47aea44e7dc64d0e34fc,
title = "The universal ratio of boron to chlorinity for the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans",
abstract = "We report seawater boron concentration (mg kg-1) and chlorinity (‰) values measured in seawater samples (n = 139) collected at various depths in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans and the East/Japan Sea (located in the western temperate North Pacific). Our results indicate that variations in seawater boron concentration are strongly coupled to variations in chlorinity (and salinity), yielding a mean boron to chlorinity ratio of 0.2414 ± 0.0009 mg kg-1 ‰-1 (boron to salinity ratio = 0.1336 ± 0.0005 mg kg-1 ‰-1). This ratio was surprisingly universal throughout the water column in the three marine basins and across widely different ocean surface regimes, but differs from the generally accepted ratio of 0.232 ± 0.005 mg kg-1 ‰-1 determined by Uppstr{\"o}m (1974), which was based on only 20 measurements at four sites in the tropical Pacific Ocean. In converting total alkalinity to carbonate alkalinity (and vice versa) for thermodynamic calculations, the difference between these two ratios leads to a difference of 5 μmol kg-1 in estimates for ocean surface waters, where the contribution of borate to total alkalinity is typically greatest. We suggest the use of the new boron to chlorinity ratio for predicting seawater boron concentrations using chlorinity (or salinity) data.",
author = "Kitack Lee and Tae-Wook Kim and Byrne, {Robert H.} and Millero, {Frank J.} and Feely, {Richard A.} and Liu, {Yong Ming}",
year = "2010",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.gca.2009.12.027",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "1801--1811",
journal = "Geochmica et Cosmochimica Acta",
issn = "0016-7037",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The universal ratio of boron to chlorinity for the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans

AU - Lee, Kitack

AU - Kim, Tae-Wook

AU - Byrne, Robert H.

AU - Millero, Frank J.

AU - Feely, Richard A.

AU - Liu, Yong Ming

PY - 2010/3/15

Y1 - 2010/3/15

N2 - We report seawater boron concentration (mg kg-1) and chlorinity (‰) values measured in seawater samples (n = 139) collected at various depths in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans and the East/Japan Sea (located in the western temperate North Pacific). Our results indicate that variations in seawater boron concentration are strongly coupled to variations in chlorinity (and salinity), yielding a mean boron to chlorinity ratio of 0.2414 ± 0.0009 mg kg-1 ‰-1 (boron to salinity ratio = 0.1336 ± 0.0005 mg kg-1 ‰-1). This ratio was surprisingly universal throughout the water column in the three marine basins and across widely different ocean surface regimes, but differs from the generally accepted ratio of 0.232 ± 0.005 mg kg-1 ‰-1 determined by Uppström (1974), which was based on only 20 measurements at four sites in the tropical Pacific Ocean. In converting total alkalinity to carbonate alkalinity (and vice versa) for thermodynamic calculations, the difference between these two ratios leads to a difference of 5 μmol kg-1 in estimates for ocean surface waters, where the contribution of borate to total alkalinity is typically greatest. We suggest the use of the new boron to chlorinity ratio for predicting seawater boron concentrations using chlorinity (or salinity) data.

AB - We report seawater boron concentration (mg kg-1) and chlorinity (‰) values measured in seawater samples (n = 139) collected at various depths in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans and the East/Japan Sea (located in the western temperate North Pacific). Our results indicate that variations in seawater boron concentration are strongly coupled to variations in chlorinity (and salinity), yielding a mean boron to chlorinity ratio of 0.2414 ± 0.0009 mg kg-1 ‰-1 (boron to salinity ratio = 0.1336 ± 0.0005 mg kg-1 ‰-1). This ratio was surprisingly universal throughout the water column in the three marine basins and across widely different ocean surface regimes, but differs from the generally accepted ratio of 0.232 ± 0.005 mg kg-1 ‰-1 determined by Uppström (1974), which was based on only 20 measurements at four sites in the tropical Pacific Ocean. In converting total alkalinity to carbonate alkalinity (and vice versa) for thermodynamic calculations, the difference between these two ratios leads to a difference of 5 μmol kg-1 in estimates for ocean surface waters, where the contribution of borate to total alkalinity is typically greatest. We suggest the use of the new boron to chlorinity ratio for predicting seawater boron concentrations using chlorinity (or salinity) data.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=75849122557&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=75849122557&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.gca.2009.12.027

DO - 10.1016/j.gca.2009.12.027

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:75849122557

VL - 74

SP - 1801

EP - 1811

JO - Geochmica et Cosmochimica Acta

JF - Geochmica et Cosmochimica Acta

SN - 0016-7037

IS - 6

ER -