The work function of polyaniline nanoparticles in the emeraldine base state was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy to be ∼270 meV higher than that of similar nanoparticles in the emeraldine salt state. Normal tapping mode atomic force microscopy could not be used to distinguish between the particles due to their similar morphologies and sizes. Moreover, other potential measurement systems, such as using zeta potentials, were not suitable for the measurement of surface charges of doped nanoparticles due to their encapsulation by interfering chemical groups. Kelvin probe force microscopy can be used to overcome these limitations and unambiguously distinguish between the bare and doped polyaniline nanoparticles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Mechanics of Materials
- Materials Science(all)