Theoretical design of lithium chloride superionic conductors for all-solid-state high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

Dongsu Park, Haesun Park, Yongheum Lee, Sang Ok Kim, Hun Gi Jung, Kyung Yoon Chung, Joon Hyung Shim, Seungho Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


The development of solid electrolytes (SEs) is a promising pathway to improve the energy density and safety of conventional Li-ion batteries. Several lithium chloride SEs, Li3MCl6 (M = Y, Er, In, and Sc), have gained popularity due to their high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and good chemical stability. This study systematically investigated 17 Li3MCl6 SEs to identify novel and promising lithium chloride SEs. Calculation results revealed that 12 Li3MCl6 (M = Bi, Dy, Er, Ho, In, Lu, Sc, Sm, Tb, Tl, Tm, and Y) were stable phase with a wide electrochemical stability window and excellent chemical stability against cathode materials and moisture. Li-ion transport properties were examined using bond valence site energy (BVSE) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculation. Li3MCl6 showed the lower migration energy barrier in monoclinic structures, while orthorhombic and trigonal structures exhibited higher energy barriers due to the sluggish diffusion along the two-dimensional path based on the BVSE model. AIMD results confirmed the slower ion migration along the 2D path, exhibiting lower ionic diffusivity and higher activation energy in orthorhombic and trigonal structures. For the further increase of ionic conductivity in monoclinic structures, Li-ion vacancy was formed by the substitution of M3+ with Zr4+. Zr-substituted phase (Li2.5M0.5Zr0.5Cl6, M = In, Sc) exhibited up to a fourfold increase in ionic conductivity. This finding suggested that the optimization of Li vacancy in the Li3MCl6 SEs could lead to superionic Li3MCl6 SEs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34806-34814
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 5


  • all-solid-state batteries
  • chloride solid electrolytes
  • energy storage
  • materials design
  • solid electrolytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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