Three-dimensional display-induced transient myopia and the difference in myopic shift between crossed and uncrossed disparities

Young Woo Suh, Jaeryung Oh, Hyo Myung Kim, Yoonae A. Cho, Jong Suk Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of NITM. METHODS. Twenty-five volunteers, enrolled in this study, watched 2D and 3D movies and read 3D texts with crossed and uncrossed disparities for 2 to 3 hours with spectacle correction. The viewing distance was 50 to 70 cm. The refractive error was measured before and after each visual task. If there was a myopic shift after a task, the refractive error was measured at 3-minute intervals until it was resolved. The changes in the refractive error and the amount of NITM were evaluated and compared. RESULTS. The mean age of volunteers was 27.8 ± 2.87 years, and the mean refractive error before the visual tasks was 4.19 ± 2.87 diopters (D). Thirteen subjects (52%) showed NITM after watching a 2D movie, whereas 20 subjects (80%) had NITM after a 3D movie (P= 0.037). The mean extent of NITM was 0.36 ± 0.27 D after watching a 3D movie and 0.10 ± 0.28 D after a 2D movie (P= 0.002). The 3D text with crossed disparity significantly induced NITM (P < 0.001), but that with uncrossed disparity did not. There was a tendency for the NITM to persist longer after subjects watched a 3D movie than after a 2D movie. CONCLUSIONS. Viewing 3D images with crossed disparity induced a greater degree of NITM than 2D images. These results suggest that the greater NITM induced by 3D images may have a greater effect on the development and progression of permanent myopia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5029-5032
Number of pages4
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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