Three-dimensional display-induced transient myopia and the difference in myopic shift between crossed and uncrossed disparities

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Abstract

PURPOSE. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of NITM. METHODS. Twenty-five volunteers, enrolled in this study, watched 2D and 3D movies and read 3D texts with crossed and uncrossed disparities for 2 to 3 hours with spectacle correction. The viewing distance was 50 to 70 cm. The refractive error was measured before and after each visual task. If there was a myopic shift after a task, the refractive error was measured at 3-minute intervals until it was resolved. The changes in the refractive error and the amount of NITM were evaluated and compared. RESULTS. The mean age of volunteers was 27.8 ± 2.87 years, and the mean refractive error before the visual tasks was 4.19 ± 2.87 diopters (D). Thirteen subjects (52%) showed NITM after watching a 2D movie, whereas 20 subjects (80%) had NITM after a 3D movie (P= 0.037). The mean extent of NITM was 0.36 ± 0.27 D after watching a 3D movie and 0.10 ± 0.28 D after a 2D movie (P= 0.002). The 3D text with crossed disparity significantly induced NITM (P < 0.001), but that with uncrossed disparity did not. There was a tendency for the NITM to persist longer after subjects watched a 3D movie than after a 2D movie. CONCLUSIONS. Viewing 3D images with crossed disparity induced a greater degree of NITM than 2D images. These results suggest that the greater NITM induced by 3D images may have a greater effect on the development and progression of permanent myopia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5029-5032
Number of pages4
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume53
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 1

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Myopia
Motion Pictures
Refractive Errors
Volunteers
Three-Dimensional Imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

@article{53503510fe2e41a18a2207e591e9c437,
title = "Three-dimensional display-induced transient myopia and the difference in myopic shift between crossed and uncrossed disparities",
abstract = "PURPOSE. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of NITM. METHODS. Twenty-five volunteers, enrolled in this study, watched 2D and 3D movies and read 3D texts with crossed and uncrossed disparities for 2 to 3 hours with spectacle correction. The viewing distance was 50 to 70 cm. The refractive error was measured before and after each visual task. If there was a myopic shift after a task, the refractive error was measured at 3-minute intervals until it was resolved. The changes in the refractive error and the amount of NITM were evaluated and compared. RESULTS. The mean age of volunteers was 27.8 ± 2.87 years, and the mean refractive error before the visual tasks was 4.19 ± 2.87 diopters (D). Thirteen subjects (52{\%}) showed NITM after watching a 2D movie, whereas 20 subjects (80{\%}) had NITM after a 3D movie (P= 0.037). The mean extent of NITM was 0.36 ± 0.27 D after watching a 3D movie and 0.10 ± 0.28 D after a 2D movie (P= 0.002). The 3D text with crossed disparity significantly induced NITM (P < 0.001), but that with uncrossed disparity did not. There was a tendency for the NITM to persist longer after subjects watched a 3D movie than after a 2D movie. CONCLUSIONS. Viewing 3D images with crossed disparity induced a greater degree of NITM than 2D images. These results suggest that the greater NITM induced by 3D images may have a greater effect on the development and progression of permanent myopia.",
author = "Young-Woo Suh and Oh, {Jae Ryung} and Kim, {Hyo Myung} and Cho, {Yoonae A.} and Jong-Suk Song",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
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doi = "10.1167/iovs.12-9588",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Three-dimensional display-induced transient myopia and the difference in myopic shift between crossed and uncrossed disparities

AU - Suh, Young-Woo

AU - Oh, Jae Ryung

AU - Kim, Hyo Myung

AU - Cho, Yoonae A.

AU - Song, Jong-Suk

PY - 2012/7/1

Y1 - 2012/7/1

N2 - PURPOSE. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of NITM. METHODS. Twenty-five volunteers, enrolled in this study, watched 2D and 3D movies and read 3D texts with crossed and uncrossed disparities for 2 to 3 hours with spectacle correction. The viewing distance was 50 to 70 cm. The refractive error was measured before and after each visual task. If there was a myopic shift after a task, the refractive error was measured at 3-minute intervals until it was resolved. The changes in the refractive error and the amount of NITM were evaluated and compared. RESULTS. The mean age of volunteers was 27.8 ± 2.87 years, and the mean refractive error before the visual tasks was 4.19 ± 2.87 diopters (D). Thirteen subjects (52%) showed NITM after watching a 2D movie, whereas 20 subjects (80%) had NITM after a 3D movie (P= 0.037). The mean extent of NITM was 0.36 ± 0.27 D after watching a 3D movie and 0.10 ± 0.28 D after a 2D movie (P= 0.002). The 3D text with crossed disparity significantly induced NITM (P < 0.001), but that with uncrossed disparity did not. There was a tendency for the NITM to persist longer after subjects watched a 3D movie than after a 2D movie. CONCLUSIONS. Viewing 3D images with crossed disparity induced a greater degree of NITM than 2D images. These results suggest that the greater NITM induced by 3D images may have a greater effect on the development and progression of permanent myopia.

AB - PURPOSE. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) images cause nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) more than 2D images and whether there is any difference between 3D images with crossed and uncrossed disparities in the development of NITM. METHODS. Twenty-five volunteers, enrolled in this study, watched 2D and 3D movies and read 3D texts with crossed and uncrossed disparities for 2 to 3 hours with spectacle correction. The viewing distance was 50 to 70 cm. The refractive error was measured before and after each visual task. If there was a myopic shift after a task, the refractive error was measured at 3-minute intervals until it was resolved. The changes in the refractive error and the amount of NITM were evaluated and compared. RESULTS. The mean age of volunteers was 27.8 ± 2.87 years, and the mean refractive error before the visual tasks was 4.19 ± 2.87 diopters (D). Thirteen subjects (52%) showed NITM after watching a 2D movie, whereas 20 subjects (80%) had NITM after a 3D movie (P= 0.037). The mean extent of NITM was 0.36 ± 0.27 D after watching a 3D movie and 0.10 ± 0.28 D after a 2D movie (P= 0.002). The 3D text with crossed disparity significantly induced NITM (P < 0.001), but that with uncrossed disparity did not. There was a tendency for the NITM to persist longer after subjects watched a 3D movie than after a 2D movie. CONCLUSIONS. Viewing 3D images with crossed disparity induced a greater degree of NITM than 2D images. These results suggest that the greater NITM induced by 3D images may have a greater effect on the development and progression of permanent myopia.

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U2 - 10.1167/iovs.12-9588

DO - 10.1167/iovs.12-9588

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JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

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