Compensation of sample-induced optical aberrations is crucial for visualizing microscopic structures deep within biological tissues. However, strong multiple scattering poses a fundamental limitation for identifying and correcting the tissue-induced aberrations. Here, we introduce a label-free deep-tissue imaging technique termed dimensionality reduction adaptive-optical microscopy (DReAM) to selectively attenuate multiple scattering. We established a theoretical framework in which dimensionality reduction of a time-gated reflection matrix can attenuate uncorrelated multiple scattering while retaining a single-scattering signal with a strong wave correlation, irrespective of sample-induced aberrations. We performed mouse brain imaging in vivo through the intact skull with the probe beam at visible wavelengths. Despite the strong scattering and aberrations, DReAM offered a 17-fold enhancement of single scattering-to-multiple scattering ratio and provided high-contrast images of neural fibers in the brain cortex with the diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 412 nanometers and a 33-fold enhanced Strehl ratio.
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