Objectives: To examine the amount of daily dietary Cd intake (Cd-D) as the most influential non-occupational source of exposure to Cd for women among general populations in Korea. Design: Foci were placed on: 1. time trends in the amount of dietary Cd intake as the estimated values and instrumental analysis values; 2. the current trends in Cd-D and two biological exposure markers of Cd in blood (Cd-B) and in urine (Cd-U); 3. the Cd-D by food groups and their time trends. Method and Materials: Cd-D by instrumental analysis and Cd in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were cited from previous representative Korean reports. In addition, Cd-D was estimated from data on food intakes (by food groups) published in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Cd contents by each food group reported in previous representative publications. Results and Discussion: The estimated Cd-D for Korean women in 2007 was 14.82 μg per day, of which 9.74 μg per day was from plant foods and 5.09 μg per day was from animal foods. The Cd-D of plant origin accounted for 65.7%, indicating that Cd-D for Korean women is mostly from plant foods. Among the plant food groups, 'potatoes and starch' and 'grains and cereals (including rice)' were not only the major energy source in Korea but the largest Cd-D accounts among the food groups, followed by 'seaweed' as the third source. 'Fish and shellfish' were the largest Cd-D source among the food groups of animal origin. As for time trends, the estimated Cd-D decreased by 13% over a 10 year period, whereas no clear reduction was observed in Cd-B and Cd-U. Conclusion: The main Cd-D source for Korean women is foods of plant origin. 'Grains and cereals', and 'potatoes and starch', are the most influential sources of exposure to Cd. Overview of Cd-D exposure over 10 years showed a trend of a slight decrease, but there was no noteworthy reduction in Cd-B and Cd-U.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis