Ionizing radiation, such as gamma-rays and electron-beams, has been applied to modify toxicity of refractory pollutants and industrial wastewaters, however, very few studies reported the cause of toxicity changes by radiation treatment. In this work, degradation of phenol and chlorophenols (5•10 -4M) by gamma-ray treatment and consequent toxicity changes were evaluated. Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was gradually decreased with increasing absorbed dose of gamma-radiation. However, in the case of phenol and monochlorophenols (2-, 3-, and 4-CPs), toxicity was dramatically increased particularly, for a dose of as low as 1 kGy. Hydroquinone, benzoquinone, catechol, chlorohydroquinone, and 4-chlorocatechol were identified to be main by-products of gamma-ray treatment. From the solid phase extraction (SPE) fractionation study, toxicity-causing by-products were found to be hydroquinone, benzoquinone, chlorohydroquinone, and/or 4-chlorocatechol.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis