Tunable Ti3C2TxMXene-Derived TiO2Nanocrystals at Controlled pH and Temperature

Ari Chae, Sehyun Doo, Daesin Kim, Tae Yun Ko, Taegon Oh, Seon Joon Kim, Dong Yeun Koh, Chong Min Koo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2Tx MXene in aqueous dispersions spontaneously oxidizes into titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystals, the crystallization mechanism has not been comprehensively understood and the resultant crystal structures are not controlled among three representative polymorphs: anatase, rutile, and brookite. In this study, such control on the lattice structures and domain sizes of the MXene-derived TiO2 crystallites is demonstrated by means of the oxidation conditions, pH, and temperature (3.0-11.0 and 20-100 °C, respectively). It is observed that the formation of anatase phase is preferred against rutile phase in more basic and hotter oxidizing solutions, and even 100% anatase can be obtained at pH 11.0 and 100 °C. At lower pH and temperature, the portion of rutile phase increases such that it reaches ∼70% at pH 3 and 20 °C. Under certain circumstances, small portion of brookite phase is also observed. Smaller domain sizes of both anatase and rutile phases are observed in more basic oxidizing solutions and at lower temperatures. Based on these experimental results, we propose the crystallization mechanism in which the oxidative dissociation of Ti3C2Tx first produces Ti ions as the intermediate state, and they bind to abundant oxygen in the aqueous dispersions, and nucleate and crystallize into TiO2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12657-12665
Number of pages9
Issue number41
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct 18
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


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