Tuning Surface Plasmon Resonance Responses through Size and Crosslinking Control of Multivalent Protein Binding-Capable Nanoscale Hydrogels

Jie Ying Teoh, Suhwan Jeon, Bora Yim, Hae Min Yang, Yunseo Hwang, Juhui Kim, Su Kyoung Lee, Eunyoung Park, Tae Yeon Kong, So Youn Kim, Yongdoo Park, Young Gyu Kim, Jongseong Kim, Dongwon Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena have been widely studied to detect biomolecules because of their high sensitivity and ability to determine biomolecular interactions with kinetic information. However, highly selective detection in specific concentration ranges relevant to target biomolecules is still a challenging task. Recently, we developed bioresponsive nanoscale hydrogels to selectively intensify SPR signals through multivalent protein binding (MPB) events with target biomolecules, including IL-2, where we were able to demonstrate exceptional selectivity for target biomolecules with minimal responses to nonspecific and monovalent binding events. In this work, we systematically explored the relationship between the physical properties of MPB-capable nanoscale hydrogels and their SPR response induced in the presence of the programmed cell death protein 1 antibody (PD-1Ab) as a model target biomolecule. First, we developed a synthetic protocol by controlling various reaction parameters to construct a library of nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels (NHs) with different sizes (from 400 nm to 1 μm) and degrees of crosslinking (from 2 to 8%). Then, by incorporating MPB-capable PD-1 receptors onto the surface of NHs to form PD-1-responsive nanoscale hydrogels (PNHs), the hydrogel size and crosslinking dependency of their SPR responses were investigated. Our results reveal the appropriate hydrogel size regime and degree of crosslinking for effective PD-1Ab detection at specific concentrations range between a few nM and 1 μM. Overall, our study demonstrates that by tuning the physical properties of the nanoscale hydrogel matrix, the sensitivity and detection range of MPB-based SPR sensors can be modulated to potentially benefit clinical applications such as monitoring diverse therapeutic biomolecules.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2878-2889
Number of pages12
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul 11


  • biomolecules
  • monoclonal antibodies
  • multivalent protein binding
  • nanoscale hydrogels
  • surface plasmon resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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