Fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria have been reported. However, complicated P. vivax malaria is rare. We observed two unusual cases of P. vivax malaria who presented with clinical pictures of toxic shock. Both showed disseminated intravascular coagulation with marked thrombocytopenia, oliguric renal failure, and pulmonary edema. Examination of initial blood smears showed a P. vivax parasitemia of 2,352/μL and 12,376/μL, respectively. The patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine and primaquine without an antibacterial agent. These cases emphasize the importance of considering the possibility of P. vivax malarial infection in patients with a clinical picture resembling toxic shock if they have a travel history to malaria-endemic areas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases