Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae.

O. S. Shin, Vincent C. Tam, Masato Suzuki, Jennifer M. Ritchie, Roderick T. Bronson, Matthew K. Waldor, John J. Mekalanos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease typically caused by O1 serogroup strains of Vibrio cholerae. The pathogenicity of all pandemic V. cholerae O1 strains relies on two critical virulence factors: cholera toxin, a potent enterotoxin, and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), an intestinal colonization factor. However, certain non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae strains, such as AM-19226, do not produce cholera toxin or TCP, yet they still cause severe diarrhea. The molecular basis for the pathogenicity of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae has not been extensively characterized, but many of these strains encode related type III secretion systems (TTSSs). Here, we used infant rabbits to assess the contribution of the TTSS to non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae pathogenicity. We found that all animals infected with wild-type AM-19226 developed severe diarrhea even more rapidly than rabbits infected with V. cholerae O1. Unlike V. cholerae O1 strains, which do not damage the intestinal epithelium in rabbits or humans, AM-19226 caused marked disruptions of the epithelial surface in the rabbit small intestine. TTSS proved to be essential for AM-19226 virulence in infant rabbits; an AM-19226 derivative deficient for TTSS did not elicit diarrhea, colonize the intestine, or induce pathological changes in the intestine. Deletion of either one of the two previously identified or two newly identified AM-19226 TTSS effectors reduced but did not eliminate AM-19226 pathogenicity, suggesting that at least four effectors contribute to this strain's virulence. In aggregate, our results suggest that the TTSS-dependent virulence in non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae represents a new type of diarrheagenic mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
JournalmBio
Volume2
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Oct 27
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Vibrio cholerae
Virulence
Vibrio cholerae O1
Rabbits
Diarrhea
Cholera Toxin
Intestines
Cholera
Enterotoxins
Pandemics
Virulence Factors
Intestinal Mucosa
Small Intestine
Type III Secretion Systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

Cite this

Shin, O. S., Tam, V. C., Suzuki, M., Ritchie, J. M., Bronson, R. T., Waldor, M. K., & Mekalanos, J. J. (2011). Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. mBio, 2(3).

Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. / Shin, O. S.; Tam, Vincent C.; Suzuki, Masato; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Waldor, Matthew K.; Mekalanos, John J.

In: mBio, Vol. 2, No. 3, 27.10.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shin, OS, Tam, VC, Suzuki, M, Ritchie, JM, Bronson, RT, Waldor, MK & Mekalanos, JJ 2011, 'Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae.', mBio, vol. 2, no. 3.
Shin, O. S. ; Tam, Vincent C. ; Suzuki, Masato ; Ritchie, Jennifer M. ; Bronson, Roderick T. ; Waldor, Matthew K. ; Mekalanos, John J. / Type III secretion is essential for the rapidly fatal diarrheal disease caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. In: mBio. 2011 ; Vol. 2, No. 3.
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