The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate instrumentation procedures of the alveolar ridge expansion technique (ARST) with or without Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) and to identify the most used instruments for successful outcome. An electronic as well as manual literature search was conducted in several databases including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, for articles written in English up to September 2016. The question in focus was to identify the type of device for ridge expansion that is most frequently used and provides adequate bone expansion and implant success rate. To meet the inclusion criteria, the studies were analysed for the following parameters: prospective or retrospective studies, cohort or case studies/series, cases with 5 or more human subjects, type of device used for surgery, location of defect, and minimum follow up period. The frequency of osteotome usage in this study was approximately 65%, and on average, the implant success was 97%. The motorized expanders and ultrasonic surgery system are easier to use and cause less trauma to the bone compared to the traditional/conventional instruments like mallets and osteotomes. However, their cost is a limiting factor; hence, osteotomes remain a popular mode of instrumentation.
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