Ultrafast Na Transport into Crystalline Sn via Dislocation-Pipe Diffusion

Jae Hwan Kim, Young Hwan Lee, Jun Hyoung Park, Byeong Joo Lee, Young Woon Byeon, Jae Chul Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The charging process of secondary batteries is always associated with a large volume expansion of the alloying anodes, which in many cases, develops high compressive residual stresses near the propagating interface. This phenomenon causes a significant reduction in the rate performance of the anodes and is detrimental to the development of fast-charging batteries. However, for the Na-Sn battery system, the residual stresses that develop near the interface are not stored, but are relieved by the generation of high-density dislocations in crystalline Sn. Direct-contact diffusion experiments show that these dislocations facilitate the preferential transport of Na and accelerate the Na diffusion into crystalline Sn at ultrafast rates via “dislocation-pipe diffusion”. Advanced analyses are performed to observe the evolution of atomic-scale structures while measuring the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses near the interface. In addition, multi-scale simulations that combined classical molecular dynamics and first-principles calculations are performed to explain the structural origins of the ultrafast diffusion rates observed in the Na-Sn system. These findings not only address the knowledge gaps regarding the relationship between pipe diffusion and the diffusivity of carrier ions but also provide guidelines for the appropriate selection of anode materials for use in fast-charging batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2104944
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 13

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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