Unbiased estimation of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, mean density using yellow sticky trap in cherry tomato greenhouses

Jong Kwan Kim, Jung Joon Park, Heungsun Park, Ki Jong Cho

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The spatial distribution of the count of adult greenhouse whiteflies, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), on yellow sticky traps was analyzed using Taylor's power law and spatial autocorrelation statistics in the cherry tomato greenhouses from 1998-1999. Samples were collected weekly using a cylindrically shaped yellow sticky trap placed in a 5 by 8 grid covering 0.10-0.15 ha in each of five cherry tomato greenhouses. Taylor's (1961) power law indicated that counts of T. vaporariorum on traps were aggregated within greenhouses. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that trap catches were similar (positively autocorrelated) to a distance of 12.5 m, and then dissimilar (negatively autocorrelated) at > 12.5 m. Autocorrelation-lag plots showed a globally significant spatial relation in 34 of 57 sample-weeks according to Bonferroni's approximation. The presence of this spatial relation was not related to the changes of mean density. Trap counts at the second lag distance (12.5-25 m) showed little spatial autocorrelation and tended to be the most spatially independent. A fixed-precision-level sequential sampling plan was developed using the parameters from Taylor's power law. The presence of spatial dependency in data sets degraded the sampling plan's precision relative to performance in data sets lacking significant spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, to obtain an unbiased mean density of T. vaporariorum per greenhouse, sticky traps should be placed at least > 12.5 m apart to ensure that they are spatially independent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-243
Number of pages9
JournalEntomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Oct 16



  • Aleyrodidae
  • Autocorrelation
  • Cherry tomato
  • Enumerative sampling
  • Greenhouse whitefly
  • Homoptera
  • Moran's I
  • Yellow sticky trap

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

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