Background: Although adiponectin levels have been reported to be correlated with albuminuria, this issue remains unresolved in non-diabetic hypertensive subjects, particularly when urinary adiponectin is considered. Methods: Urinary adiponectin levels were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 229 participants. who used olmesartan as a hypertensive agent. Their albuminuria levels were measured for 16 weeks after randomization and initiation of conventional or intensive diet education. Linear or logistic regression models were applied, as appropriate, to explore the relationship with albuminuria itself or its response after the intervention. Results: Urinary adiponectin levels were positively related to baseline albuminuria level (r = 0.529). After adjusting for several covariates, the adiponectin level was associated with the albuminuria level (β = 0.446). Among the 159 subjects with baseline macroalbuminuria, the risk of consistent macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 3rd tertile of adiponectin than in the 1st tertile (odds ratio = 6.9), despite diet education. In contrast, among all subjects, the frequency of the normoalbuminuria achievement (< 30 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 1st tertile than in the 3rd tertile (odds ratio = 13.0). Conclusions: Urinary adiponectin may be a useful biomarker for albuminuria or its response after treatment in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
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