In hospitalized patients, over 50% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) are caused by renal ischemia. A recent study of hospitalized patients revealed that only a mild increase in serum creatinine levels (0.3 to 0.4 mg/dl) is associated with a 70% greater risk of death than in persons without any increase. Along these lines, surgical procedures requiring cross-clamping of the aorta and renal vessels are associated with a renal failure rates of up to 30%. Similarly, AKI after cardiac surgery occurs in over 10% of patients under normal circumstances and is associated with dramatic increases in mortality. AKI are also common complications after liver transplantation. At least 8-17% of patients end up requiring renal replacement therapy. Moreover, delayed graft function due to tubule cell injury during kidney transplantation is frequently related to ischemia-associated AKI. Moreover, AKI occurs in approximately 20% of patients suffering from sepsis. The occurrence of AKI is associated with dramatic increases of morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic approaches are very limited and the majority of interventional trials in AKI have failed in humans. Therefore, additional therapeutic modalities to prevent renal injury from ischemia are urgently needed. To elucidate mechanisms of renal injury due to ischemia and possible therapeutic strategies murine models are intensively required. Mouse models provide the possibility of utilizing different genetic models including gene-targeted mice and tissue specific gene-targeted mice (cre-flox system). However, murine renal ischemia is technically challenging and experimental details significantly influence results. We performed a systematic evaluation of a novel model for isolated renal artery occlusion in mice, which specifically avoids the use of clamping or suturing the renal pedicle. This model requires a nephrectomy of the right kidney since ischemia can be only performed in one kidney due to the experimental setting. In fact, by using a hanging-weight system, the renal artery is only instrumented once throughout the surgical procedure. In addition, no venous or urethral obstruction occurs with this technique. We could demonstrate time-dose-dependent and highly reproducible renal injury with ischemia by measuring serum creatinine. Moreover, when comparing this new model with conventional clamping of the whole pedicle, renal protection by ischemic preconditioning is more profound and more reliable. Therefore his new technique might be useful for other researchers who are working in the field of acute kidney injury.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)