Use of Maize (Zea mays L.) for phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils: a critical review

Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Yong Sik Ok, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Zaheer Abbas, Fakhir Hannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.) has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its high biomass production and Cd accumulation capacity. This paper reviewed the toxic effects of Cd and its management by maize plants. Maize could tolerate a certain level of Cd in soil while higher Cd stress can decrease seed germination, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis and growth/yields. Toxicity response of maize to Cd varies with cultivar/varieties, growth medium and stress duration/extent. Exogenous application of organic and inorganic amendments has been used for enhancing Cd tolerance of maize. The selection of Cd-tolerant maize cultivar, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes is a representative agronomic practice to enhance Cd tolerance in maize. Proper selection of cultivar and agronomic practices combined with amendments might be successful for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils with maize. However, there might be the risk of food chain contamination by maize grains obtained from the Cd-contaminated soils. Thus, maize cultivation could be an option for the management of low- and medium-grade Cd-contaminated soils if grain yield is required. On the other hand, maize can be grown on Cd-polluted soils only if biomass is required for energy production purposes. Long-term field trials are required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies aiming Cd phytomanagement with maize.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-277
Number of pages19
JournalEnvironmental Geochemistry and Health
Volume39
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Bioremediation
  • Chelating agents
  • Phytoextraction
  • Phytoremediation
  • Silicon
  • Soil amendment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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