Usefulness of the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) for classifying minor and major depressive disorders among community-dwelling elders

Cheolmin Shin, Moon Ho Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Young Hoon Ko, Yong Ku Kim, Kyu Man Han, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Changsu Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) is a short form of GDS and is used to screen, diagnose, and evaluate depression in elderly individuals. Most previous studies evaluated the ability of GDS-15 to discriminate between depressive and non-depressive states. In this study, we investigated the multi-stage discriminating ability of GDS-15. Methods: A total of 774 participants, over 65 years of age were included (normal, n = 650; minor depressive disorder [MnDD], n = 94; major depressive disorder [MDD], n = 30). Multi-category receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surfaces were evaluated to identify three stages of geriatric depression. The optimal cutoff points were selected based on the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) and the Youden index. Results: In the results of multi-category classification analyses, VUS of the GDS-15 of 0.61 was obtained, and optimal cutoff points of the GDS-15 for multiple stages of depression of 4 (between normal and MnDD) and 11 (between MnDD and MDD) were derived. The Youden index for the GDS-15 was 0.49, and the derived optimal cutoff points were 5 and 10, for the multiple stages, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy based on the Youden index was superior to that based on the VUS in the GDS-15. Limitations: The participants’ cognitive function has potential to affect the GDS-15 score; nevertheless, the study included those with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions: GDS-15 was a useful tool to classify stages of geriatric depression into either minor or major depressive disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)370-375
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume259
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1

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Independent Living
Major Depressive Disorder
Geriatrics
Depressive Disorder
Depression
Aptitude
ROC Curve
Cognition

Keywords

  • Depression
  • GDS-15
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Minor depressive disorder
  • Multi-category classification
  • Subthreshold depression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Usefulness of the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) for classifying minor and major depressive disorders among community-dwelling elders. / Shin, Cheolmin; Park, Moon Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Ko, Young Hoon; Kim, Yong Ku; Han, Kyu Man; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Han, Changsu.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 259, 01.12.2019, p. 370-375.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: The 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) is a short form of GDS and is used to screen, diagnose, and evaluate depression in elderly individuals. Most previous studies evaluated the ability of GDS-15 to discriminate between depressive and non-depressive states. In this study, we investigated the multi-stage discriminating ability of GDS-15. Methods: A total of 774 participants, over 65 years of age were included (normal, n = 650; minor depressive disorder [MnDD], n = 94; major depressive disorder [MDD], n = 30). Multi-category receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surfaces were evaluated to identify three stages of geriatric depression. The optimal cutoff points were selected based on the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) and the Youden index. Results: In the results of multi-category classification analyses, VUS of the GDS-15 of 0.61 was obtained, and optimal cutoff points of the GDS-15 for multiple stages of depression of 4 (between normal and MnDD) and 11 (between MnDD and MDD) were derived. The Youden index for the GDS-15 was 0.49, and the derived optimal cutoff points were 5 and 10, for the multiple stages, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy based on the Youden index was superior to that based on the VUS in the GDS-15. Limitations: The participants’ cognitive function has potential to affect the GDS-15 score; nevertheless, the study included those with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions: GDS-15 was a useful tool to classify stages of geriatric depression into either minor or major depressive disorder.",
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AU - Shin, Cheolmin

AU - Park, Moon Ho

AU - Lee, Seung Hoon

AU - Ko, Young Hoon

AU - Kim, Yong Ku

AU - Han, Kyu Man

AU - Jeong, Hyun-Ghang

AU - Han, Changsu

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N2 - Background: The 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) is a short form of GDS and is used to screen, diagnose, and evaluate depression in elderly individuals. Most previous studies evaluated the ability of GDS-15 to discriminate between depressive and non-depressive states. In this study, we investigated the multi-stage discriminating ability of GDS-15. Methods: A total of 774 participants, over 65 years of age were included (normal, n = 650; minor depressive disorder [MnDD], n = 94; major depressive disorder [MDD], n = 30). Multi-category receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surfaces were evaluated to identify three stages of geriatric depression. The optimal cutoff points were selected based on the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) and the Youden index. Results: In the results of multi-category classification analyses, VUS of the GDS-15 of 0.61 was obtained, and optimal cutoff points of the GDS-15 for multiple stages of depression of 4 (between normal and MnDD) and 11 (between MnDD and MDD) were derived. The Youden index for the GDS-15 was 0.49, and the derived optimal cutoff points were 5 and 10, for the multiple stages, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy based on the Youden index was superior to that based on the VUS in the GDS-15. Limitations: The participants’ cognitive function has potential to affect the GDS-15 score; nevertheless, the study included those with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions: GDS-15 was a useful tool to classify stages of geriatric depression into either minor or major depressive disorder.

AB - Background: The 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) is a short form of GDS and is used to screen, diagnose, and evaluate depression in elderly individuals. Most previous studies evaluated the ability of GDS-15 to discriminate between depressive and non-depressive states. In this study, we investigated the multi-stage discriminating ability of GDS-15. Methods: A total of 774 participants, over 65 years of age were included (normal, n = 650; minor depressive disorder [MnDD], n = 94; major depressive disorder [MDD], n = 30). Multi-category receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surfaces were evaluated to identify three stages of geriatric depression. The optimal cutoff points were selected based on the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) and the Youden index. Results: In the results of multi-category classification analyses, VUS of the GDS-15 of 0.61 was obtained, and optimal cutoff points of the GDS-15 for multiple stages of depression of 4 (between normal and MnDD) and 11 (between MnDD and MDD) were derived. The Youden index for the GDS-15 was 0.49, and the derived optimal cutoff points were 5 and 10, for the multiple stages, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy based on the Youden index was superior to that based on the VUS in the GDS-15. Limitations: The participants’ cognitive function has potential to affect the GDS-15 score; nevertheless, the study included those with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions: GDS-15 was a useful tool to classify stages of geriatric depression into either minor or major depressive disorder.

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