Using eye tracking to account for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

Ellen J. Van Loo, Rodolfo M. Nayga, Danny Campbell, Han Seok Seo, Wim Verbeke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


This study uses eye-tracking measures to account for attribute non-attendance (ANA) in choice experiments. Using the case of sustainability labelling on coffee, we demonstrate various approaches to account for ANA based on the fixation count cut-offs, definitions for detecting ignored attributes, and methods for modelling ANA. Some of the sustainability attributes identified through eye-tracking measures as being ‘visually ignored’ were truly ignored, whereas in none of the tested approaches was price truly ignored. The adequacy of eye tracking as a visual ANA measure might thus depend on the type of attribute. Further, the study unveiled inconsistencies in identifying non-attenders using visual ANA and the coefficient of variation. Based on our results, we cannot conclude that eye tracking always adequately identifies ANA. However, we identified several major challenges that can assist in further optimising the use of eye tracking in the context of ANA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-365
Number of pages33
JournalEuropean Review of Agricultural Economics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 1


  • Attribute non-attendance
  • Decision-making
  • Eye tracking
  • Food choice
  • Sustainability labelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Economics and Econometrics


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