Using response surface methodology to assess the effects of iron and spent mushroom substrate on arsenic phytotoxicity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

Namin Koo, Hun Je Jo, Sang Hwan Lee, Jeong-Gyu Kim

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of iron (Fe) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) arsenic (As) phytotoxicity towards lettuce in artificial soils were investigated to separate the adverse soil parameters relating to As toxicity using a response surface methodology. SMS induced the root elongation of lettuce in both control and As-treated soils. However, in phytotoxicity test using a median effective concentration (EC50) of As, Fe and the interaction between both parameters (Fe SMS) significantly affected EC50, which explained 71% and 23% of the response, respectively. The refined model was as follows: EC50 of As (mgkg-1)=10.99+60.03×Fe-10.50×Fe SMS. The results confirmed that the soil parameters relating to the As mobility in soils were important factors affecting its toxicity. In conclusion, Fe significantly reduced the As phytotoxicity. However, although SMS enhanced the root elongation, SMS in As-treated soils decreased EC50 of As on the root growth via its interaction with Fe. Despite the limitations of the artificial soils and range of parameters studied, the application of this statistical tool can be considered a powerful and efficient technique for interpretation and prediction of the complicated results caused by the interactions between many factors within the soil environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-387
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug 15



  • Arsenic
  • Iron
  • Organic matter
  • Phytotoxicity
  • Response surface model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering

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