Validation of Pressure Reactivity and Pulse Amplitude Indices against the Lower Limit of Autoregulation, Part I: Experimental Intracranial Hypertension

Frederick A. Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Jennifer K. Lee, Peter Smielewski, Ken Brady, Dong Ju Kim, Marek Czosnyka

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The purpose of this study was to provide validation of intracranial pressure (ICP) derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity against the lower limit of autoregulation (LLA). Utilizing an intracranial hypertension model within white New Zealand rabbits, ICP, transcranial Doppler (TCD), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and arterial blood pressure were recorded. Data were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 12 rabbits with adequate signals for interrogating the LLA. We derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity: PRx (correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure [MAP]), PAx (correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP [AMP] and MAP), and Lx (correlation between LDF-based cerebral blood flow [CBF] and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP]). LLA was derived via piecewise linear regression of CPP versus LDF or CPP versus systolic flow velocity (FVs) plots. We then produced error bar plots for PRx, PAx, and Lx against 2.5 mm Hg bins of CPP, to display the relationship between these indices and the LLA. We compared the CPP values at clinically relevant thresholds of PRx and PAx, to the CPP defined at the LLA. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed for each index across the LLA using 2.5 mm Hg bins for CPP. The mean LLA was 51.5 ± 8.2 mm Hg. PRx and PAx error bar plots demonstrate that each index correlates with the LLA, becoming progressively more positive below the LLA. Similarly, CPP values at clinically relevant thresholds of PRx and PAx were not statistically different from the CPP derived at the LLA. Finally, ROC analysis indicated that PRx and PAx predicted the LAA, with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.795 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.731-0.857, p < 0.0001) and 0.703 (95% CI: 0.631-0.775, p < 0.0001), respectively. Both PRx and PAx generally agree with LLA within this experimental model of intracranial hypertension. Further analysis of clinically used indices of autoregulation across the LLA within pure arterial hypotension models is required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2803-2811
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 1



  • autoregulation
  • continuous indices
  • experimental
  • LLA
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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