We propose a physics-inspired simulation framework that expresses visual effects of flowing water frozen in glaze or directional icicles. The proposed ice model considers the direction of the water flow, which affects the growth of icicles. Water dynamics are computed using a conventional particle-based simulation. Ice glaze and directional icicles are generated by incorporating our freezing solver. To determine whether a water particle is converted into ice or remains liquid, we compute the nucleation energy based on the humidity and water flow. The humidity is approximated as a virtual water film on object surfaces. The water flow is incorporated by introducing a growth direction vector to guide the direction of icicle growth. Ice-generating regions can be controlled using 3-D modeling tools such as Autodesk Maya or 3DS Max. Experiments showed that a realistic ice glaze was created on the surfaces of objects and that icicles grew in the direction of the water flow.
- ice formation
- nucleation energy
- rapidly freezing animation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design