Visualization of Sodium Metal Anodes via Operando X-Ray and Optical Microscopy: Controlling the Morphological Evolution of Sodium Metal Plating

Jeesoo Seok, Jae Hwan Hyun, Aihua Jin, Ji Hyun Um, Héctor D. Abruña, Seung Ho Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Because of the abundance and cost effectiveness of sodium, rechargeable sodium metal batteries have been widely studied to replace current lithium-ion batteries. However, there are some critical unresolved issues including the high reactivity of sodium, an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), and sodium dendrite formation. While several studies have been conducted to understand sodium plating/stripping processes, only a very limited number of studies have been carried out under operando conditions. We have employed operando X-ray and optical imaging techniques to understand the mechanistic behavior of Na metal plating. The morphology of sodium metal plated on a copper electrode depends strongly on the salts and solvents used in the electrolyte. The addition of a fluorine-containing additive to a carbonate-based electrolyte, NaClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC):fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), results in uniform sodium plating processes and much more stable cycling performance, compared to NaClO4 in PC, because of the formation of a stable SEI containing NaF. A NaF layer, on top of the sodium metal, leads to a much more uniform deposition of sodium and greatly enhanced cyclability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10438-10446
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 2

Keywords

  • dendrite
  • fluoroethylene carbonate
  • operando imaging
  • optical microscopy
  • sodium metal batteries
  • X-ray microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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